- Reconstruction of functional peripheral nervous tissue is a challenging task. Complete recovery of lost sensory and motor functions can be rarely achieved due to the complex biochemical composition of the human body.
Many approaches have been developed and applied with a different degree of success. The aim of this review is focused on the revision of today’s medical approaches to peripheral nervous tissue regeneration. Special attention is put on the most recent approaches that use solutions mimicking those elaborated by nature. The paper describes the anatomy of peripheral nerve tissue and deals with current understanding of biochemical processes involved in its development as well as in the body’s response to its damage. Next, the paper addresses new methods of nerve tissue reconstruction reflecting the anatomical and physiological basis of anatomical and physiological properties of peripheral nerves. In the final conclusions, recent breakthroughs in peripheral nerve regeneration are taken into accout to create an ideal approach to this field of tissue engineering.